Abrasion testing: summary of national standards, fabric types

Many textiles are required to be tested for abrasion resistance, such as bed linen, duvet covers, pillowcases, sofa cloth, floor coverings and some coated fabrics.

Common test standards

Regarding the determination of textile abrasion resistance, there are many kinds of standards and different methods. After years of research by national textile standards and test workers, the current test method has converged, basically formed a standard ISO12947 for the determination of abrasion resistance.

International Standard

ISO 12947.2-1998 “Determination of the resistance of textiles to abrasion by the Martindale method Part 2: Determination of specimen breakage”.

ISO12947.3-1998 “Determination of abrasion resistance of textiles by the Martindale method, Part 3: Determination of quality loss”.

ISO 12947.4-1998 “Determination of the abrasion resistance of textiles by the Martindale method Part 4: Evaluation of changes in appearance”.

American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Standards

ASTMD4966-2010 Martindale Abrasion Tester for Textile Abrasion Resistance Testing

European Union Standard

ENISO12947-2:1998 “Determination of abrasion resistance of textiles by the Martindale method for textiles Part 2: Determination of specimen breakage”.

ENISO12947-3: 1998 “Determination of abrasion resistance of textiles by the Martindale method for textiles Part 3: Determination of mass loss”.

ENISO12947-4:1998 “Determination of abrasion resistance of textiles by the Martindale method Part 4: Evaluation of changes in appearance”.

Note:

Several influential international standardisation organisations issued the above standards. They are the standards for testing fabric abrasion by the Martindale method. Among them, the EU standard is equivalent to the adoption of the ISO standard.

The U.S. standard has two parts. It includes a test for abrasion resistance. It has rules for the Martindale tester and materials. The standard is like the International Organisation for Standardisation standard ISO12947.2 ~ 4. Both test the loss of quality and changes in appearance. But, ISO12947.3 ~ 4 is a bit different.

Abrasion resistance testing for different textile types

Tests for abrasion resistance vary by textile type, use, and properties. Below is a comparison of abrasion tests for floor coverings. It covers coated, decorative, and functional textiles.

Floor coverings

Abrasion resistance test methods:

Using the Martindale test method or the Taber Abrasion test. These tests simulate friction on the floor.

Assessment indicators:

The main focus is on abrasion resistance and the change in appearance. The key indicators are the number of cycles in the Martindale test and the amount of abrasion in the Taber test.

Other considerations:

Carpets, for example, often need to resist abrasion and staining. They must also be easy to clean.

Consider:

Carpets and other floor coverings need to resist wear, stains, and be easy to clean.

Coated Textiles

Test methods for abrasion resistance:

You can also use the Martindale test method or the Taber Abrasion test. But, we need to consider how the coating affects the test.

Evaluation indicators:

We need to consider both the wear resistance of the coating. We also need to consider the wear resistance of the fabric. We also need to consider the adhesion of the coating after abrasion. We also need to consider changes in appearance. The number of cycles and the amount of abrasion are the main indicators.

Other considerations:

The type and thickness of the coating may change how resistant coated textiles are. They change how the textiles resist abrasion. So, someone needs to assess it for different types of coatings.

Trimmed Textiles

Abrasion resistance test method:

Surface abrasion tests are usually carried out using the Martindale test method.

Evaluation Indicators:

The main focus is on the textile’s abrasion resistance. Also, on how its appearance changes after abrasion. The number of cycles and the amount of abrasion are key indicators.

Other considerations:

Decorative textiles are known for their appearance. Wear affects this, causing color change or pattern wear. So, the abrasion test must account for these effects.

Functional textiles

Abrasion resistance test methods:

In addition to the Martindale test, we need to consider the specific use of functional textiles. For example, fabrics with waterproof function can use the water cycle test method.

Evaluation indexes:

We need to determine evaluation indexes for functional textiles. These indexes should match their characteristics, like waterproofness, breathability, and antibacterial properties. So, besides abrasion resistance, we also need to consider the above functions.

Other considerations:

Functional textiles need multiple traits at once. So, the abrasion test must also consider its link to other functions. In the actual test, you must choose the right test method. Do so based on the textile’s characteristics and use. Consider also its relationship with other performance measures.

Smartindale Martindale Abrasion and Pilling Tester

The Smartindale Martindale Abrasion and Pilling Tester tests fabrics. It checks abrasion and pilling of cotton, linen, silk, and other textiles. It also tests film, knits, woolens, fake leather, and gloves. Over 20 international standards use it. These include ISO 12945-2-2020, ISO12947-2-2016, BS EN 530-2010, and ASTMD4970/4970M-22.

An algorithm drives friction. It generates a Lissajous curve for precise operation without calibration. Switch between pilling and friction testing with a button touch. You can do this without changing pins. You can control and monitor it through a mobile app. Users can upload test data to ERP or LIMS for testing.

pilling tester

The design is friendly. You can lift the flip-up guide plate with one hand. It is convenient for loading and sampling.

Factors affecting the abrasion resistance of fabrics

Fabric organisation

The fabric’s structure determines its compactness and thickness. These affect its abrasion resistance. Plain weave > twill > satin.

Geometric structure of textile

The fabric’s thickness, warp and weft density, weight, apparent density, and hair content.

Thicker fabric has higher warp and weft density. It also has higher weight per unit area and apparent density. It also has more hair content. These traits mean better abrasion resistance. Conversely, thin, low-density fabric has poor abrasion resistance.

Fibre type

In general, the order of fibre abrasion resistance is: polyamide > polypropylene > PVC > PEG > polyester > acrylic > PVC > wool > silk > cotton > linen > rich fibre > copper-ammonia fibre > viscose fibre > vinyl ester fibre > glass fibre.

Fibre structure

Comparing the fiber structures, round fibers resist abrasion more than shaped fibers. Finer fibers have worse abrasion resistance. So, to improve abrasion resistance, choose round fibers. They should have good abrasion resistance as much as possible.

Finishing

Finishing can change fabric’s abrasion resistance. It combines physical and chemical methods to give fabric a specific performance. For example, protective finishing: waterproof, fireproof, mildew, oil, cold, anti-pilling and anti-pilling.

For more information on textile testing methods/standards

or textile testing machines, contact us:

What’s App: +86 180 2511 4082

Tel: +86 769 2329 4842

Fax: +86 769 2329 4860

Email: [email protected]